08 июня 2015г.
Modern society lives during an era of the prompt changes creating a new civilization in which a major factor is the increase of value of a human factor and the growing role of information technologies in the solution of practical tasks.
Now there is a modernization of traditional training with the considerable support on psychological features of the trained students. The set of new methods allows speaking about an innovative technology of training. Complete psychological and pedagogical technologies are built in vocational training. In these technologies the trained acts are built as an active subject in teaching and educational process. Pedagogical technologies are defined as the sum of "techniques and logic", i.e. substantial technology in realization of teaching and educational process. The main efforts of the trained acts are directed on the formation of an information component and the ways of intellectual actions where informative processes are involved.
In this regard an actual pedagogical problem is a scientific and methodological justification of vocational training of the experts focused on new system of knowledge, their replenishment, updating and change in conditions of continuous education. Training at higher education institution has to train future experts for the solution of the arising problem situations.
The traditional training technologies due to its passivity didn't allow creating in changing society which is necessary for the experts. New educational technologies lean on an education system where there is training not only in knowledge, but in ways, forms and methods to get knowledge, i.e. in methodologies of scientific cognitive activity, and in the subsequent applications of these professional cognitive activities.
Selection of the content in practical training is defined by the principle of the system-activity approach in education demanding integration of knowledge in different disciplines. For classroom and out-of-class organizational forms of practical training it is necessary to choose such contents which stimulates a student's initiative and creativity in self-realization of future experts at the level of theoretical and practical actions.
Working in the conditions of modernization of educational space, in conditions when it is necessary to change approaches to education, teachers of a foreign language are open for new opportunities and new ideas in a solution of the tasks set for education and for higher education. It is not a simple task, but it is necessary to solve it quickly and cleverly, without spending additional financial resources.
Training of a foreign language as it is known goes in four directions: listening, reading, writing and speaking. In the result of the development these four directions which is required at the Unified State Examination delivery, it is necessary to develop them further at higher educational institution.
The last achievements in science, techniques and in cross-cultural aspect of modern life simply break the developed stereotypes which existed in education for a long time, namely in a technique of teaching foreign languages. It is impossible to teach now as before, having near at hand the global Internet with its huge resources, modern electronic devices which are used by students daily at lessons, and also that powerful equipment with which all modern offices are equipped now. It is on the one hand. On the other hand, we see the student who knows his purposes and aims for sure, and that he has to receive at the exit, graduating from the higher educational institution. So a present student isn't similar to the student of the last decade at all, he became exacting, ambitious, seeking the ways to improve his knowledge in language as soon as possible . It means that we, teachers of a foreign language, also have to increase ourselves with the level of qualifying standards: to create such interest and motivation at the lessons of a foreign language that for the pupil the aspiration to get on our lesson became a paramount task.
Proceeding from told above, subjects of classes in a foreign language also, as well as the plan for each occupation, has to be accurately planned and systematized. They have to be actual, modern, inducing to discussion. The purpose of practical occupation can be realized by means of different methods of active training, for example, by such active method as Active reading, Mini-conference, Debate or the Round-table discussion. Mostly conducting a Round-table discussion or a Mini-conference will require some lessons of training which can also be realized, using other techniques. As oral presentations pass in the competitive environment, for each member of a team it is very important to be prepared perfectly.
That is it is possible to tell that system - activity approach in training of a foreign language will be applied by the students of the first and the second courses by means of methods of active training. The objective of the project makes students to study not only a foreign language, and also has a huge educational value. In the absence of one of members the group has no opportunity to pass the project and be ready to perform it. Thus, the sense of responsibility for the whole team, for its success and its victory is brought up.
The presentation of the Round- table discussion is estimated on the following items:
1. Relevance of a topic
2. English speech (grammar, lexicon, phonetics)
3. Use of technical means
4. Proper answers to the questions connected with the international cooperation and cross-cultural communication That is it is possible to emphasize once again that communication, especially cross-cultural communication, was
and remains a main goal of studying any foreign language and the communication takes place successfully when tremendous preparatory work as it was already noted, begins with an active reading of the texts offered by the teacher, and also with the picked-up texts on a topic students independently chose, and comes to an end with writing projects. The teacher checks all the preparatory work. As not each student is available to write a report quickly and independently, the whole system of training exercises on studying necessary grammar and lexicon also is applied to such students.
1) The general topic
2) Distribution on groups
3) Each group is given the texts (connected with the general topic)
4) In each group the plan of carrying out the project and its name is developed
5) Students write the plan of the project
6) Further there is a verification of the written project plan
7) Students write the statements in workbooks and prepare for reading
8) After checking reading there is learning roles by heart
For example, such theme as "Health and Well-being" at school of Biomedicine, is realized by means of such active method as a Project work. The whole group breaks into subgroups and the main theme get out into subthemes: Up in Smoke, Obesity, Memory and Can Fashion Be Hazardous to Your Health. All subtopics are rather modern and actual; therefore there is a very strong motivation for creation of an exclusive project. At Engineering school a tremendous topic as "Computer Hardware" breaks into sub-themes between subgroups: Microprocessors and Memory of the Computer, Motherboard and Hard Disk, Video System and Sound System, PC Power Supplies, New Technologies in Computer Hardware, is also carried out by means of such active method as the Round-Table discussion which passes through the discussion of the current engineering problems and prospects of the development in computer hardware which is provided by such foreign companies as Google, Apple, IBM, Microsoft and others. In this case we also observe development of the process of cross-cultural communication as the entry into international companies that can be carried out only by having created activity of a cross-cultural exchange, as students of 1 and 2 courses carry out the course projects. At the beginning of creating virtual teleconferences between the virtual foreign companies in cool audience, gradually there is carrying out a transition to real business negotiations in real time, thereby we see breaking the framework and barriers created for centuries due to cultural distinction.
Since culture plays such an important role in determining our personality and our belief system, it behooves us to understand what makes one cultural context differ from another. If we examine the list of cultural values, we notice that these values exist in all cultures and this performs some culture bumps. We can analyze how people normally handle a culture bump. Only by learning to recognize, name, and analyze our culture bumps, we have the possibility to discover ourselves. This discovery forms the basis of acceptance and respect between people in the world.
The simple definition of communication as the process in which meaning is transmitted from one or more individuals is accurate. Communication between people is a complex process. We communicate constantly, yet rarely pay attention to it. Communication occurs through three basic channels: nonverbal language, paralanguage, and verbal language. Many culture bumps occur when individuals don’t know the paralanguage or nonverbal cues of another language.
To understand cues cross culturally becomes even more a complicated task because each of us learns the cues that are appropriate in his or her culture, and each culture has different ―cues‖ to show basic ideas. The first step in breaking this cycle of miscommunication is to learn to observe our behavior and others’ behavior too. Once we do this, we can begin to study different cultural styles of communication. Once we became aware of different styles of communication in different cultures, we lessen our habits of forming value judgments without knowing why we do so. One of the first steps in breaking cross-cultural communication is observing behavior and defining different styles of communication.
The offered technique proceeds from the expedient allocation of problems in educational process and solving these problems. Such technology stimulates cognitive activity of students, their independence in out-of-class work, allows an optimum combination of other methods to create comprehensive and harmonious identity of a modern expert having broad professional knowledge, skills and owning a methodology of scientific cognitive activity.
Thus, system and activity approach in training of a foreign language represents educational technology at the heart of which there is an independent activity of a student mastering a professional educational program at a support for a specially developed course and systematic work with the teacher. This method is a complex psychology and pedagogical technology directed to the proper solution of questions in teaching and in education.
List of references
1. Archer, Carol. Living with Strangers in the U.S.A.: Communicating Beyond Culture. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1991, p. 71-87.
2. Competence approach in the educational process: monograph / A.E. Fedorov, S.E. Metelev, A.A. Solovev, E.V. Shlyakova. - Omsk: Publishing House Ltd. "Omskblankizdat", 2012. - 210 p.
3. Izrailevich E.E. Business correspondence and documentation in English. M.: YUNVES, 2001. - 496 p.
4. Khutorskoi A.V. Methodology of the personality-oriented educating. M.: Vlados Press, 2005. - 383 p.
5. Problem-modular training: Textbook / Sokolov E.A. - M.: University textbook: SIC Infra-M, 2012. – 392 p.
6. Stempleski Susan. World Pass: Expending English Fluency. USA: Thomson, 2006, p. 11-73.